It is believed that our universe was born 13.8 billion years ago after the Big Bang and has since expanded with acceleration. However, what exactly happened in the first seconds after the birth of the Universe – inflation – for a long time remains a mystery to physicists. According to the new hypothesis, what tells Live Science, in a relatively young universe, “the observer must be shielded” from direct observation of the smallest structures in space. In other words, physicists, by definition, will never be able to model inflation with conventional tools, and they will have to figure out a better way. The new hypothesis points to a specific feature of inflationary models that take very, very small fluctuations in spacetime and make them larger. But since a complete physical theory of these small fluctuations does not exist, inflation models with this feature (that is, almost all) will never work. Let me remind you that observations of the large-scale structure of the Universe and the remnants of light from the Big Bang earlier showed that in the very early Universe, our cosmos was probably going through a period of incredibly rapid expansion.
Evolution of the early universe
Today we know that as a result of inflation in the smallest fraction of a second, the universe has grown trillions and trillions of times larger. In the process, inflation also made our cosmos a little uneven: as it evolved, the smallest random quantum fluctuations – fluctuations embedded in the fabric of spacetime itself – became much, much larger, which meant that some areas were more densely packed with matter than others.
Eventually, these submicroscopic differences became macroscopic … and even more, in some cases extending from one end of the universe to the other. Millions and billions of years later, these tiny differences in density have grown to become the seeds of stars, galaxies, and the largest structures in space. But if inflation in the early universe made our universe as we know it today, then what exactly drove inflation into action? How long did it last and what stopped it? Alas, scientists do not have answers to these questions – they simply lack a complete physical description of this significant event.
Another conundrum is that in most inflation models, fluctuations at extremely small scales inflate into macroscopic differences. These differences are incredibly tiny, and it would take a new theory of physics to describe reality with them.
Different approaches to understanding inflation
Since scientists do not have a theory that integrates physics at high energies and small scales (for example, under conditions such as inflation), physicists are trying to build versions with lower energies in order to make progress. “Under the new hypothesis, however, this strategy does not work because when we use it to build models of inflation, the inflation process is so fast that it ‘subjects’ the sub-Planck regime to macroscopic observation,” the authors write. new research…
Another possible approach to modeling the early universe lies in string theory, which in itself is a promising candidate for a unified theory of everything (combining classical and quantum physics). Interestingly, in this model, the universe is not subject to a period of rapid inflation. Instead, the period of inflation is much milder and slower, and fluctuations are not “affected” by the macroscopic universe. However, the so-called “effective field theory” (string gas models) do not yet have sufficient detail to be verified on the basis of observable evidence of inflation in the Universe.
Let me remind you that string theory predicts a huge number of potential universes, of which our particular space (with its set of forces and particles and the rest of physics) represents only one. Yet most (if not all) inflation models are incompatible with string theory at a basic level. Instead, they belong to what physicists call “swamps” – regions of possible universes that simply cannot physically exist.
Scientists today are still hoping to build a traditional model of inflation, but if the new hypothesis is correct, it will severely limit the types of models that physicists can build. It is also important to understand that the new hypothesis is so far nothing more than an assumption… Which, however, agrees with the unproven string theory (in fact, string theory is far from complete and is not yet capable of making predictions).
But such ideas are still useful, because physicists fundamentally do not understand the inflation process. So anything that can help researchers hone their thinking skills, including outside the box, is welcome. Do you think physicists will be able to understand how the universe was born in the coming years?
iPhone 13 Pro: Force restart if device does not respond
The new iPhone 13 models are here and with them some users get their first iPhone without a home button in their hands. This also changes various gestures and functions. An example of this is forcing a restart, which is performed differently than it was just a few years ago.
If you switch from an iPhone 8 or iPhone SE (2nd generation) to a current iPhone model, you will quickly notice a lot of changes. In addition to the new gestures for returning to the home screen or opening the control center, the missing home button should be particularly noticeable. In the past, this controlled various functions such as Siri, the one-handed mode or the forced restart. The latter works completely differently with the new models and has a small side effect along the way. But one after another.
iPhone 13 (all models): How to force restart
Without a home button, Apple had to come up with a new alternative to force the devices to restart. The way is much more complex than before. While on the older models you only had to hold down the home button together with the power button, it now requires a small key combination. To restart an iPhone 13, briefly press the volume up button and release it again. Then press the volume down button in the same way. Finally, hold down the side button (power button) until the Apple logo appears on the display. You should not pay attention to any displays or changes on the screen during the processor.
Short version: Force restart the iPhone 13
- Briefly press the volume up button
- Briefly press the volume down button
- Press and hold the side button until the Apple logo appears.
Quickly deactivate Face ID on the iPhone 13
Apple has integrated a function in iOS to quickly turn off Face ID. This means that it is not possible for other people (police, etc.) to unlock your iPhone by holding it in your face. To do this, simply press and hold a volume button together with the side button until your iPhone vibrates briefly but quickly. Then press either “Cancel” or the Page button again. Thanks to the vibration, you can also deactivate it in your pocket and know that it worked.
macOS Big Sur: Disable search suggestions in Safari – here’s how
Web browsers these days have a lot of cool features and capabilities that should make our life easier. Apple Safari is certainly no exception.
A lot is offered with many nice gimmicks such as the reading list or the reader display. Searching the net is also simple and can be started directly in the address bar. However, not every user wants the search suggestions equally, so we’ll show you how to disable the search suggestions in Safari.
Search engine suggestions can be scary at times. Thanks to the strong network, you now know exactly what we want to look for and then have the right answer ready before we could actually put the question to the end. This of course also has the advantage that we can get to our goal very quickly with these complex search algorithms and thus save a lot of time. But if you are one of those people who forego this convenience and want to increase data protection, we would be happy to explain how you can deactivate the search suggestions in Safari.
macOS Monterey: How to turn off search suggestions in Safari
Step 1: First open the Safari browser on the Mac, if you have not already done so. This is either located directly in the dock or can also be reached there via the “Programs” folder.
step 2: Now click on “Safari” in the menu bar at the top of the screen and select “Settings”.
step 3: Then select the “Search” tab.
Step 4: You will then see a drop-down menu with the search engine – this is Google by default – and under it it says: “Include search engine suggestions”. Uncheck this entry.
Step 5: Below that you can remove the check mark in front of “Include Safari suggestions”.
Step 6: Now close the Safari settings menu and surf the web as usual with Safari.
If you would like to see more tips and tricks of this kind in the future, please let us know. Write a comment or leave us a post on our Facebook page.
Apple ID: iOS 15 allows resetting with friends and family
If you lose access to your Apple ID, it’s a very messy business. It literally holds the Apple universe together. You can use it to make purchases from Apple, the App Store or the iTunes Store, manage your app subscriptions, access your iCloud data and much more. Fortunately, since iOS 15 you don’t need a second device of your own to reset your Apple ID and set a new password. The new operating system allows you to define a contact who, if necessary, can confirm your identity and thus give you access to your data again. Of course, you should think carefully about who is eligible for this position. This can be your best friend or family member. These should also have an iPhone or iPad with iOS 15 or iPadOS 15 and be older than 13 years.
How to set a reset contact for your Apple ID
Your Apple ID is not lost right away because you forgot your password. Establish a special “emergency contact” beforehand that will give you access to your Apple account again. To do this, open the Settings app and tap on your profile at the top before you select “Password & Security”. Then tap on “Account recovery”. Now select the option “Add contact”. Read the information about the function carefully. In the next step, you may be asked to update your devices. You can then specify a contact from your family group or from your contact list. You will only see qualified contacts. After your selection, a message will be sent to the selected person informing them of their new position.
How to remove a reset contact from your Apple ID
If you no longer want a certain person to allow you to reset your Apple ID, you can revoke this at any time. To do this, open the settings and tap on your Apple account at the top. Then select “Password & Security> Account Recovery”. Now tap on the person’s name and select “Remove contact”. The removed contact will be automatically notified of the change.
notice: The function is only available if all of your devices are running at least iOS 15, iPadOS 15, tvOS 15 and watchOS 8. Make sure of this beforehand or remove the devices from your Apple ID if an update is not possible.
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