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Why is the Earth’s core cooling so fast?



A new study has revealed that the Earth’s core could be cooling faster than previously expected. The extremely hot interior of the planet we inhabit is cooling, and scientists are unclear as to why this process might be accelerating.

Human beings have set their sights on discovering new planets like Mars, through different space missions and also through documentaries about the red planet, but the reality is that many aspects of the nature of the Earth are still unknown. while the researchers from Carnegie and ETH Zurich studying a mineral found at the boundary between Earth’s outer core and lower mantle, they found that our planet’s interior may be cooling much faster than we had imagined.

Earth Evolution

Earth is a planet that has been cooling for 4.5 billion years. Originally it was very hot from the surface to the core covered by oceans of magma. As it cooled from the outside in, a solid crust of rock formed.

At present, the core still emanates large amounts of heat towards the mantle, which gives rise to vital processes such as the movement of tectonic plates and the activity of volcanoes. How long it will take for Earth to cool down is a mystery, but the scientists of the study that we will explain next are already looking for answers.

A key mineral: bridgmanite

The boundary layer between the outer core and the lower mantle is mainly composed of bridgmanite, so studying the heat conductivity of this mineral could imply important discoveries, although reproducing the conditions in a laboratory is not an easy task.

The researchers place samples of bridgmanite in a diamond anvil cell that is heated using a laser system to simulate the intense pressures and temperatures deep inside the Earth. They then measure the thermal conductivity of this mineral through a optical absorption system.

Following this analysis, the researchers found that bridgmanite was about 1.5 times better at conducting heat than had long been thought. This, in turn, denotes that heat passes more easily from the core to the mantle, thereby accelerating the rate at which the Earth’s interior cools.”

This process could become even faster over time, because as bridgmanite cools, it turns into another mineral called post-perovskite which is an even more efficient conductor of heat. By the time this new mineral starts to make up the majority at the boundary, the Earth’s interior could cool even faster.

Research Findings

“Our results could give us a new perspective on the evolution of Earth dynamics,” said Motohiko Murakami, corresponding author of the study. “They suggest that Earth, like the other rocky planets Mercury and Mars, is cooling and going idle much faster than expected”. Although the researchers cannot say for sure how long this process might take, it is important to note that this acceleration is occurring on geological timescales. The process may be accelerating, but the cooling of the Earth will still take place for billions of years.

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BMW breaks new iPhones. iPhone 15 Pro and 15 Pro Max NFC module fails due to wireless charging in car



BMW breaks new iPhones iPhone 15 Pro and 15 Pro

While Apple promises to fix the overheating problem of the new iPhone 15 Pro and 15 Pro Max, without reducing performance, another problem has emerged with the company’s new products. It turned out that BMW cars can actually break smartphones.

BMW breaks new iPhones.  iPhone 15 Pro and 15 Pro Max NFC module fails due to wireless charging in car

Several owners of Bavarian cars have already reported that the NFC module in their new iPhone 15 Pro and 15 Pro Max has failed. This happens after smartphones are charged via wireless charging in the car.

During charging, smartphones go into data recovery mode. A reboot helps return the devices to working condition, but the NFC modules do not restore functionality. In particular, the Could Not Set Up Apple Pay error appears in the Wallet app.

In some cases, owners have already replaced their smartphones at Apple stores, but it is not yet clear what the cause of this problem is. So far, complaints have only come from owners of older new Apple products, which suggests that the problem may be related to overheating.

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Astronomers have captured the light of a spatial web connecting galaxies



Astronomers have captured the light of a spatial web connecting

Such images reveal valuable information about how galaxies form and evolve, and help track the location of elusive dark matter, which makes up about 80% of the mass of the Universe.

In 2014, astronomers captured the first image of the cosmic web based on the radiation from a quasar, an object billions of times more massive than our Sun and considered one of the brightest objects in the Universe. In 2019, another study used data from young, forming stars to provide a proxy for the cosmic web. Now, astronomers have directly captured its light at a distance of 10 to 12 billion light years away.

According to cosmological models, more than 60% of the hydrogen created after the Big Bang approximately 13.8 billion years ago collapsed and formed spatial structures, which in turn collapsed and formed the cosmic web of filaments that we see today – threads of cosmic matter consisting from dust and gas. These filaments connect galaxies and enable their growth and star formation. Although this is just speculation, previous research has also suggested that galaxies form where these filaments intersect.

Astronomers have captured the light of a spatial web connecting galaxies

Using data from the Keck Cosmic Web Imager, the scientists created an image that shows “a three-dimensional cross-section of a network of filaments of hydrogen gas crossing the space between galaxies.” Source: Caltech/R. Hurt

To take the latest image of intersecting filaments, the team used data from the telescope. Keck, installed at the observatory on the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii. The device is configured to detect radiation from hydrogen, which is the main component of the cosmic web. The resulting 2D images were then combined into a 3D map based on the detected radiation emanating from the cosmic web.

To notice these faint emissions, the team first had to deal with the problem of light pollution. The dim light of the cosmic web can easily be confused with the light of the Hawaiian sky, atmospheric aurora, and even the light of our Milky Way.

So the team decided to take photographs of two different parts of the sky at different distances. The scientists then took the background light from one image and subtracted it from the other, and vice versa. As a result, only the web’s filament network remained, as simulations predicted in 2019.

Images like those produced in the new study can help scientists better understand how galaxies form and evolve over eons.

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The mass of the Milky Way turned out to be 5 times less than previously thought



The mass of the Milky Way turned out to be

One way to determine the mass of a galaxy is to study its rotation curve, measuring the speed of the stars in the galaxy depending on their distance from the galactic center. The speed at which a star rotates is proportional to the amount of mass in its orbit, so using the rotation curve of a galaxy, you can plot the distribution of the mass function over the radius and get an idea of ​​​​the total mass of the galaxy. Scientists have measured rotation curves for several nearby galaxies, such as Andromeda, so they know the masses of many galaxies very accurately.

But because we’re inside the Milky Way itself, we don’t have a good view of the stars throughout the galaxy. There is so much gas and dust towards the center of the galaxy that we can’t even see the stars on the far side. So instead, scientists measure the rotation curve using neutral hydrogen, which emits faint light at a wavelength of about 21 centimeters. This is not as precise as measuring stars, but it still gave a general idea of ​​the mass of our galaxy.

The mass of the Milky Way turned out to be 5 times less than previously thought

Distribution of stars in the galaxy according to the Gaia survey. Source: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt

Astronomers also studied the movements of globular clusters rotating in the halo of the Milky Way. From these observations, the best estimate of the Milky Way’s mass is about one trillion solar masses, with small uncertainties.

This new study is based on the third dataset from the Gaia spacecraft. It contains information on the positions of more than 1.8 billion stars and the movements of more than 1.5 billion stars. Although this is only a fraction of the estimated number of stars in our galaxy, which is between 100 and 400 billion, it is a large enough number to calculate an accurate rotation curve.

That’s exactly what the team of scientists did. The resulting rotation curve is so accurate that the team was able to determine Kepler’s law for the outer region of the Milky Way, where the velocities of stars begin to decline, consistent with Kepler’s law, since virtually all of the galaxy’s mass is closer to the galactic center.

Kepler’s Law allows the team to place a clear upper limit on the mass of the Milky Way. And what they found was quite surprising. The best fit to the data estimated the mass at about 200 billion solar masses, a fifth of previous estimates. The absolute upper limit for the Milky Way’s mass was 540 billion solar masses, which means the Milky Way is at least half as large as previously thought. And given the known normal matter in the galaxy, this means that the Milky Way contains significantly less dark matter.

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