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Western Digital OptiNAND hard drive architecture presented

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During the HDD Reimagine event, Western Digital presented a new storage architecture, which, according to the manufacturer, “breaks the usual boundaries.” The OptiNAND architecture is based on the integration of the built-in iNAND flash drives into hard drives.

The first drives to combine with OptiNAND technologies such as energy pumped perpendicular magnetic recording (ePMR), three-stage drive (TSA) and helium containment (HelioSeal) offer an unrivaled storage density of 2.2 TB per wafer carrier. Samples of drives with nine platters, totaling 20 TB, have already been shipped to selected customers.

Unlike hybrid storage, which uses flash memory to store user data, the new architecture works differently.

First, by adding iNAND to hard drives and improved firmware algorithms, data regeneration is optimized. The tracks where data is recorded on modern discs are so small that the recorded information is affected by operations on adjacent tracks. In order to eliminate the negative influence, already saved data must be overwritten from time to time. By storing extensive metadata in iNAND, including when to overwrite which section, you can increase the density of the tracks.

Secondly, it is possible to increase productivity. On the one hand, this is a consequence of the regeneration optimization described above, and on the other hand, it is a consequence of a decrease in the need for writing to disk in the write caching mode.

Third, it improves reliability by storing data in iNAND in the event of a power outage.

Western Digital plans to use the new architecture in multiple generations of hard drives, expecting ePMR HDDs with OptiNAND to reach 50 TB in the second half of this decade.

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$ 5,000 Nvidia graphics card with no DirectX support or video outputs. A detailed review of the CMP 170HX has appeared

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The Nvidia CMP 170HX is a unique graphics card, and today we have the opportunity to take a look at its full review.

Recall that the CMP 170HX is a specialized video card for mining. Only, unlike other adapters in the line, this one is based on a GPU that is not intended for the consumer market.

$ 5,000 Nvidia graphics card with no DirectX support or video outputs. A detailed review of the CMP 170HX has appeared

The heart is a huge GPU GA100, but in the case of the CMP 170HX, it seems that partially defective chips are used. Firstly, there are only 4480 active CUDA cores (out of 8192), and secondly, there is only 8 GB of memory against 40 or 80 GB of Nvidia A100 accelerators. But this is HBM2e memory with a bandwidth of 1.5 TB / s! As a result, Ethereum mining performance exceeds 160 MH / s.

We can learn some very interesting things from the review. For example, the GPU along with the memory is covered with a giant heat-distribution cover. Perhaps the largest among video cards. And the CMP 170HX is not only devoid of any video outputs, but in general it is not technically capable of running games, or even speeding up any calculations, since there is no support for the DirectX or Vulkan APIs and calculations with CUDA support do not work. In Windows, the card is defined as an RTX 3090, and it is allegedly even loaded by the system, but it is not clear what exactly, since applications cannot use the accelerator.

It remains to add that such a card costs about $ 5,000.

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Linux kernel code already knows about AMD 96-core processors

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The latest Linux kernel patch has received the first confirmation of the existence of AMD processors with 96 cores.

More precisely, it talks about the new AMD Family 19h 10h-1Fh and A0h-AFh CPUs, which can contain up to 12 chiplets. Recall that each chiplet currently contains eight cores.

The code does not indicate which processors this information applies to, but, of course, we are not talking about consumer Ryzen. In this case, we are dealing with either server-side Epyc or Threadripper. And with regard to the former, everything agrees with the data of AMD itself.

Recall that the company recently talked about the Epyc Genoa processors on the Zen 4 architecture, which will just have up to 96 cores. As a result, we now know that the new Epyc chiplets will still contain eight cores, but the number of chiplets will increase. And in Bergamo processors, their number should reach 16 at all, if AMD does not change the chiplets for these CPUs.

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Components

Dual processors, dual 4K Sony Micro OLED screens, eight cameras and Mac-like performance. Apple headset is expected in the fourth quarter of 2022

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Recently, rumors have become more frequent regarding Apple’s upcoming mixed reality headset. Prominent analyst Ming-Chi Kuo of TF International Securities describes it as a standalone device that does not require an iPhone or Mac connection.

The mixed reality headset will feature two 4K Micro OLED displays from Sony, as well as two processors. The main processor will have the performance level of the Apple M1 single-chip system, and the auxiliary processor will process information from the sensors.

It is also reported that the headset will receive up to eight cameras that will be used in augmented reality applications. In addition, the device can be used as a full-fledged gadget for virtual reality applications.

Previous rumors have indicated that the headset will weigh just 200-300 grams. At the same time, how much the device will cost is still unknown: a very wide range is called from 1000 to 3000 dollars.

It is confirmed that the device could be released as early as the fourth quarter of 2022.

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