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US and European physicists have created an efficient plant for the production of oxygen on Mars

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European and American physicists have developed a plasma facility that allows extracting oxygen from carbon dioxide molecules present in the Martian atmosphere. This was reported by the press service of the American Physical Institute.

US and European physicists have created an efficient plant for the production of oxygen on Mars

We assumed that the collision of high-energy electrons with CO molecules2 will lead to the decomposition of this substance or to the release of heat. This energy can also be used to break down carbon dioxide. Together with colleagues from France and the Netherlands, we were able to experimentally confirm these hypotheses.”, – said associate professor of the University of Lisbon (Portugal) Vasco Guerra.

In the past six years, at the suggestion of Elon Musk, scientists have begun to seriously think about how humanity can begin the process of colonizing Mars and other potentially habitable planets. To do this, as the researchers now suggest, two problems need to be solved: to learn how to produce energy, as well as oxygen, water and food, using local resources.

As Guerra and his colleagues note, oxygen production will be one of the most important and energy-intensive tasks that the first colonists on Mars will face. To solve it, scientists are developing systems that can extract oxygen from the Martian air and soil. One such facility, MOXIE, was installed aboard the Perseverance rover and successfully tested on Mars in April last year.

MOXIE absorbs carbon dioxide, heats it up to 800 degrees Celsius and passes it through a special ceramic material that breaks down CO2 to oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO). European physicists and their American colleagues have developed an alternative approach that markedly outperforms the MOXIE system in terms of compactness and oxygen production efficiency.

The installation created by scientists relies in its work on the fact that CO molecules2 become much less stable if they are placed inside a rarefied plasma, the electrons inside of which have a much higher energy than ions and neutral molecules. In theory, this allows the splitting of CO2 to carbon monoxide and oxygen if CO molecules2 will often encounter electron beams with well-defined properties.

Guided by this idea, Guerra and his colleagues conducted a series of experiments during which they studied the interactions of oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide inside an inhomogeneous plasma. These experiments helped scientists to choose such operating parameters, in which oxygen almost did not combine with carbon monoxide and did not form new CO molecules.2.

As the researchers note, the production of oxygen using plasma does not require heating the Martian air to temperatures exceeding 30-40 degrees Celsius, as well as high pressure. In the future, this will significantly reduce the cost of energy and resources for the production of oxygen on Mars, the physicists summed up.

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Hyundai showed the concept of the K808 armored personnel carrier with a hydrogen power plant. The prototype is expected to be released in 2026.

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Hyundai showed the concept of the K808 armored personnel carrier

Hyundai Rotem, Hyundai’s military vehicle division, has announced a new generation of armored personnel carriers and tanks at DX Korea 2022. Their feature will be the use of hydrogen power plants and artificial intelligence systems.

Hyundai showed the concept of the K808 armored personnel carrier with a hydrogen power plant.  The prototype is expected to be released in 2026.

The new armored personnel carrier bears the symbol NGWAV (Next-generation Wheeled Armored Vehicle, new generation armored personnel carrier), the tank – NGMBT (Next-generation Main Battle Tank, main battle tank of the new generation). They will replace, respectively, the K808 armored personnel carrier and the K2 MBT tank, which are in service with the army of the Republic of Korea.

Hyundai showed the concept of the K808 armored personnel carrier with a hydrogen power plant.  The prototype is expected to be released in 2026.

Hyundai Rotem notes that the novelties are being developed taking into account modern technologies – they will use AI, a fuel (hydrogen) cell power plant, an autonomous driving system, and next-generation weapons.

NGWAV will be based on the current K808 platform with a hydrogen power plant. The project started this year, the prototype should appear in 2026.

The company takes ten years to create NGWAV and NGMBT, while some characteristics of the promising armored personnel carrier are already known. Its weight will not exceed 30 tons, the maximum speed will be 100 km/h, the cruising range is 600 km. However, there may be some changes in terms of power reserve, since it all depends on how many fuel cells will be placed on board. Also, NGWAV will receive an uninhabited tower, a 40-mm cannon and a rocket launcher.

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The Redmi smartphone costs just over $100. Redmi A1+ render and specs

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The Redmi smartphone costs just over 100 Redmi A1 render

The source published details about the Redmi A1 + smartphone. As the name suggests, this model will be an improved version of the previously released Redmi A1. And there will only be one improvement.

The Redmi smartphone costs just over $100.  Redmi A1+ render and specs

This is a fingerprint scanner. Redmi A1 does not have it, while Redmi A1+ has the corresponding sensor on the back panel. There will be no more differences between Redmi A1 and Redmi A1 +.

The Redmi smartphone costs just over $100.  Redmi A1+ render and specs

Redmi A1 + will receive a screen with a diagonal of 6.52 inches and HD + resolution, SoC MediaTek Helio A22, 2 GB of RAM and 32 GB of flash memory (in the basic version), a 5-megapixel front camera and an 8-megapixel main camera (there will be a second image sensor , but its resolution is not reported), a 5000 mAh battery with support for 10 W charging. The device will run pure Android version 12. Other features include a standard headphone jack and a microUSB port.

The Redmi smartphone costs just over $100.  Redmi A1+ render and specs

The exact cost of Redmi A1 + is not called, but the source logically explains that the inclusion of a fingerprint scanner in the design will have a minimal impact on the price. If Redmi A1 is priced at 100 euros, then Redmi A1 + will be slightly more expensive than 100 euros (or $ 100).

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Is there a meteorite? Chinese scientists believe that dinosaurs began to die out before the meteorite fell

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Is there a meteorite Chinese scientists believe that dinosaurs began

Researchers from the China University of Geosciences, after examining more than 1,000 eggshell remains, suggested that dinosaurs were on the path to extinction millions of years before the meteorite fell.

Is there a meteorite?  Chinese scientists believe that dinosaurs began to die out before the meteorite fell

Fossilized eggshells and whole eggs of dinosaurs that lived two million years before the meteorite hit have been discovered in central China. Despite the huge number of remains, they belonged to only two different taxa – hadrosaurids and oviraptors. At the same time, the number of species has been constantly decreasing for all two million years. This may indicate that biodiversity was already extremely low then.

The decline in biodiversity has weakened the collective ability of dinosaurs to adapt after the impact of the asteroid Chicxulub that fell in Mexico. This means that the prerequisites for the mass extinction of dinosaurs were formed millions of years before the meteorite fell.

Low species diversity in the same period was also characteristic of North America, i.e., the decrease in diversity took place globally. Causes could be volcanic eruptions and climate change. Some studies suggest that dinosaur diversity may have begun to decline 10 million years before the meteorite impact. Opponents of this hypothesis believe that less than 20% of the dinosaurs were in decline before the meteorite fell, so it is impossible to explain their extinction only by “earthly” reasons. The authors emphasize that further research is needed on this topic.

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