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Simulation of the evolution of the Universe explains why spiral Simulation of the evolution of the Universe explains why spiral

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Simulation of the evolution of the Universe explains why spiral galaxies are so rare

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For a long time, astronomers have been faced with the mystery of the reason for the rarity of spiral galaxies, including our Milky Way – most of them are elliptical galaxies.

A recent study using computer models found that the rarity of spiral galaxies is due to natural interactions between galaxies within the galactic plane, which smooth out potential spiral structures and lead to the formation of elliptical galaxies.

Simulation of the evolution of the Universe explains why spiral galaxies are so rare

Illustration of the structure of the Milky Way’s spiral arms. Source: NASA/JPL-Caltech

While stars in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way typically move in circular orbits around the center of their galaxies, when two galaxies of comparable mass are close to each other, their orbits become unstable and their motion becomes chaotic. This leads to redistribution and mixing of stars, which ultimately leads to the disappearance of spiral structures and the formation of elliptical galaxies.

Interactions between large galaxies have other consequences. Not only do they disrupt the orbits of stars, but they can also lead to intense star formation, leading to the birth of many new stars.

Black holes, found at the centers of most large galaxies, can also be activated by galaxy interactions, which can slow the rate of new star formation after a merger and make the galaxy’s shape more elliptical.

The growth of the Milky Way occurs due to the absorption of smaller, dwarf galaxies. However, due to their small size, these galaxies do not significantly influence the shape of our galaxy. However, it is expected that the upcoming collision of the Milky Way with the Andromeda Galaxy in four billion years may have a final impact on the structure of our galaxy. Andromeda has comparable or even greater mass compared to our galaxy.

Models predict that as it evolves and changes shape, the possibility of an elliptical galaxy returning to its original spiral shape is probably not feasible. In spiral galaxies with sufficient gas reserves, the formation of new stars is possible, which can fill the spiral structures. However, elliptical galaxies usually do not have enough gas for such processes.

Currently, a group of researchers is working to improve computer models to more accurately match the observed processes. This will help improve our understanding of the universe and perhaps identify inconsistencies or errors in the current knowledge base.

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The newest Toyota Camry has not become a hit in China, even despite its low prices. In two months, only 8 thousand pre-orders were collected

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The newest Toyota Camry has not become a hit in

The joint venture GAC Toyota reported on car sales in February of this year: last month the company sold 43,271 cars. By comparison, GAC Toyota sold 71,875 vehicles in January. The drop in sales is explained by the New Year in China (and, accordingly, the decline in consumer activity during this period), but sales also decreased relative to February last year, by an impressive 35%.

The newest Toyota Camry has not become a hit in China, even despite its low prices.  In two months, only 8 thousand pre-orders were collected

The newest Toyota Camry has not become a hit in China, even despite its low prices.  In two months, only 8 thousand pre-orders were collected

Statistics on pre-orders for the newest Toyota Camry, the ninth generation sedan, have also been announced. Since January 1, a total of 8,049 purchase applications have been issued. And this is not enough: for comparison, 5 thousand orders were placed in China for the newest Toyota Land Cruiser 250 in just an hour. Perhaps Camry sales will increase after March 6, when the new Camry officially enters the Chinese market: then retail prices will be announced, and they are usually lower than pre-order prices.

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Car News

The newest Toyota Camry has not become a hit in China, even despite its low prices. In two months, only 8 thousand pre-orders were collected

Published

on

The newest Toyota Camry has not become a hit in

The joint venture GAC Toyota reported on car sales in February of this year: last month the company sold 43,271 cars. By comparison, GAC Toyota sold 71,875 vehicles in January. The drop in sales is explained by the New Year in China (and, accordingly, the decline in consumer activity during this period), but sales also decreased relative to February last year, by an impressive 35%.

The newest Toyota Camry has not become a hit in China, even despite its low prices.  In two months, only 8 thousand pre-orders were collected

The newest Toyota Camry has not become a hit in China, even despite its low prices.  In two months, only 8 thousand pre-orders were collected

Statistics on pre-orders for the newest Toyota Camry, the ninth generation sedan, have also been announced. Since January 1, a total of 8,049 purchase applications have been issued. And this is not enough: for comparison, 5 thousand orders were placed in China for the newest Toyota Land Cruiser 250 in just an hour. Perhaps Camry sales will increase after March 6, when the new Camry officially enters the Chinese market: then retail prices will be announced, and they are usually lower than pre-order prices.

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Car News

Not a Cybertruck, but also unique. Changan Hunter introduced – the world’s first pickup truck with a sequential hybrid powertrain

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Not a Cybertruck but also unique Changan Hunter introduced

Changan has officially introduced the new Changan Hunter pickup truck in China, and it is a unique vehicle: it is the first sequential hybrid in its class. At least that’s what the company itself says.

Not a Cybertruck, but also unique.  Changan Hunter introduced - the world's first pickup truck with a sequential hybrid powertrain

The car is available in eight trim levels, prices vary from 19.45 to 31.15 thousand dollars. And the basic version is rear-wheel drive – the power of this option is 177 hp; in the top version, a 95 hp motor is installed on the front axle. The traction battery capacity is 31.18 kWh, the pure electric range is 180 km, the maximum range is 1031 km (according to measurements using the CLTC method). To charge the traction battery, a 2.0-liter gasoline turbo engine with a power of 190 hp is installed under the hood, and it has no connection with the wheels.

Not a Cybertruck, but also unique.  Changan Hunter introduced - the world's first pickup truck with a sequential hybrid powertrain

Changan Hunter can be either with a regular single cabin or with a double cabin. The dimensions and wheelbase of the car in the first case are 5380 × 1930 × 1885 mm and 3180 mm, in the second – 5630 × 1930 × 1885 mm and 3430 mm. Accordingly, the dimensions of the loading platform also differ: 1600 × 1595 × 500 mm and 1850 × 1595 × 500 mm.

Not a Cybertruck, but also unique.  Changan Hunter introduced - the world's first pickup truck with a sequential hybrid powertrain

Two additional motors and a heavy traction battery reduced the vehicle’s carrying capacity – it is only 495 kg. But the pickup can power household appliances or power tools: there is an outlet with a power output of 3.3 kW.

The Changan Hunter is equipped with a digital dashboard with a 7.5-inch diagonal screen, a media system with a 12-inch screen, a rain sensor, cruise control, 40 W wireless charging for a smartphone, leather interior, heated seats and steering wheel. Air ducts are provided for rear passengers.

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