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Scientists have reconstructed the past history of black holes and Scientists have reconstructed the past history of black holes and

Computers

Scientists have reconstructed the past history of black holes and neutron stars through computer simulations and exposed the phenomenon of their “ejection” into outer space

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Scientists have modeled the formation of black holes and neutron stars after the collapse of dying stars and explained why some of them receive a strong impulse that pushes them into interstellar space.

Black holes receive a significant boost when their parent stars die in a cataclysmic explosion. A new study has shown that these newborn black holes, ejected by their parent stars, are moving at significant speeds. New data may shed light on the first moments of a black hole’s life.

Scientists have reconstructed the past history of black holes and neutron stars through computer simulations and exposed the phenomenon of their “ejection” into outer space

Illustration of the formation of a primordial black hole. Source: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Black holes and neutron stars arise in the cores of massive dying stars. Stars approaching the end of their life cycle, whose mass is at least eight solar masses, undergo collapse, combining iron atoms in their cores. This creates a protoneutron star, a cluster of neutrons about the size of a city. This cluster temporarily stops the gravitational collapse of the rest of the star, which usually results in a supernova explosion. However, sometimes the pressure in the hearts of these explosions increases, and the protoneutron star turns into a black hole.

Previous computer models of supernovae only simulated a brief moment of this process, long enough to capture the explosion itself. while observations of real black holes and neutron stars point to interesting physical phenomena to study.

Some neutron stars move at speeds of more than 5.4 million kilometers per hour, indicating that they were ejected during an explosion, while others move 30 times slower, indicating a quieter birth process.

On the other hand, black holes in most cases have a low ejection rate, despite the catastrophic nature of their formation. The team of astronomers ran 20 computer simulations of supernovae to explain the early existence of black holes and neutron stars. The simulations were long enough to demonstrate how each object was ejected by its parent star.

Astronomers have discovered a strong connection between the properties of the host star before the explosion and the characteristics of the resulting neutron star or black hole. If the parent star is low mass and not very compact, then the outer layers of the star are enlarged compared to the core, and the supernova explodes suddenly and almost symmetrically, creating a slow-moving neutron star.

However, very massive and compact progenitors take longer to explode, and their explosions do not occur symmetrically. This results in a fast-moving ejected neutron star. The researchers also found that larger neutron stars tend to receive stronger impulses, meaning that more of the compact progenitor’s mass is transferred to the neutron star. Direct impact from the host star’s flare also causes neutron stars to spin, and a stronger impact results in faster rotation.

Thus, the asymmetric explosion of the parent star not only ejects the neutron star, but also sets its initial rotation. This phenomenon may explain the appearance of magnetars—fast-rotating, neutron stars that have an exceptionally strong magnetic field.

There are two mechanisms for the formation of black holes. In one case of the ancestor, the star does not explode, but the pressure in its core increases to a level at which a black hole is formed. Such black holes are usually large, about 10 times the mass of the Sun, and practically do not move. They make up the majority of black holes.

However, black holes can form in another way. In some cases, the progenitor star explodes completely and ejects some of its mass, leaving behind a smaller black hole with about 3 times the mass of the Sun.

The study found that these black holes experience enormous “ejection” velocities in excess of 3.6 million kilometers per hour. However, such fast-moving black holes are quite rare.

This research establishes an important connection between the observable objects—neutron stars and black holes—moving through the universe, and the unknown details of how the parent star explodes. By studying the characteristics of neutron stars and black holes, astronomers will be able to form a complete picture of the life cycle of stars. This will expand knowledge about the processes occurring in the Universe and understand the deeper mechanisms leading to the formation of these exotic space objects.

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Computers

Cleaners in London discovered two copies of the world’s first mass-produced personal computer, Q1, under the rubble of boxes.

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Cleaners in London discovered two copies of the worlds first

London-based waste collection company Just Clear discovered two computers under boxes during another house cleaning. It turned out that these were the very first production PCs.

Cleaners in London discovered two copies of the world's first mass-produced personal computer, Q1, under the rubble of boxes.

The company’s employees did not know what they had found, and could not even find the information on the Internet. But the head of Just Clear turned to specialists, who determined that the cleaners had discovered two copies of the Q1 computer from the Q1 Corporation. They were released in 1972, and only a few copies were delivered to the UK. This PC is based on an Intel 8008 processor and also has 16 KB of memory.

The two PCs are currently on display at a technology exhibition at Kingston University in Surrey. They will later be sold at auction.

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Computers

L-shaped computer power supply from a renowned manufacturer. Lian Li presented a line of unusual Edge power supplies

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L shaped computer power supply from a renowned manufacturer Lian Li

Lian Li has introduced a series of Edge computer power supplies that stand out for their extremely unusual shape.

L-shaped computer power supply from a renowned manufacturer.  Lian Li presented a line of unusual Edge power supplies

As you can see, these blocks have a protrusion on which all the main power connectors are located. This L-shape makes it easier to access the connectors in a number of cases. Lian Li herself says that she created such blocks specifically for two-chamber cases. However, the manufacturer adds that its new product will be compatible with most other cases on the market.

L-shaped computer power supply from a renowned manufacturer.  Lian Li presented a line of unusual Edge power supplies

L-shaped computer power supply from a renowned manufacturer.  Lian Li presented a line of unusual Edge power supplies

In addition to the usual power connectors, the unit has a USB hub for expanded access to internal USB ports on the system board.

The first-born of the line will be the flagship unit with a power of 1300 W with an 80 Plus Platimun certificate, but then more affordable ones with an 80 Plus Gold certificate and a power of 850 and 1000 W will appear.

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Components

Gaming laptop running Linux. Juno Computers introduced Saturn 17 v5: 165 Hz, 10-core Core i7-13620H, GeForce RTX 4070 Laptop and Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

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Gaming laptop running Linux Juno Computers introduced Saturn 17 v5

The British manufacturer of laptops, mini-PCs and tablets introduced a new laptop model called Saturn 17 v5. This model runs Linux: the buyer can choose Ubuntu 22.04 LTS or Ubuntu 23.10 as the pre-installed OS.

Gaming laptop running Linux.  Juno Computers introduced Saturn 17 v5: 165 Hz, 10-core Core i7-13620H, GeForce RTX 4070 Laptop and Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

The Saturn 17 v5 is equipped with a 10-core Core i7-13620H. RAM capacity – 16, 32 or 64 GB, SSD – 512 GB, 1 TB or 2 TB (there is also a second M.2 slot).

Gaming laptop running Linux.  Juno Computers introduced Saturn 17 v5: 165 Hz, 10-core Core i7-13620H, GeForce RTX 4070 Laptop and Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

The screen is characterized by a diagonal of 17.3 inches, a resolution of 2560 x 1440 pixels and a frame rate of 165 Hz. The basic version has a 3D accelerator Nvidia GeForce RTX 4050 Laptop, more expensive versions have a GeForce RTX 4060 or GeForce RTX 4070 Laptop.

Gaming laptop running Linux.  Juno Computers introduced Saturn 17 v5: 165 Hz, 10-core Core i7-13620H, GeForce RTX 4070 Laptop and Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

The cost of the Saturn 17 v5 in the basic configuration with a GeForce RTX 4050 Laptop, 16 GB of RAM and 512 GB of flash memory is $1,400.

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