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Scientists have clarified the structure of the universe. 66.2% of the total mass of the Universe is dark energy, the remaining 33.8% are visible and dark matter

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Nobel laureate Adam Riess and his colleagues have obtained refined data on the structure of the universe, indicating that dark energy accounts for about 66.2% of the total mass of the Universe, while the remaining 33.8% is occupied by visible and dark matter. The work was published in The Astrophysical Journal. The press service of the Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Center (CfA) reported on the results of the work of scientists.

Scientists have clarified the structure of the universe.  66.2% of the total mass of the Universe is dark energy, the remaining 33.8% are visible and dark matter

We have refined the main cosmological parameters by analyzing the outbursts of more than 1,500 type 1 supernovae. In many ways, our Pantheon+ project is the culmination of more than two decades of painstaking collaboration between theorists and experimenters to unravel the nature of the cosmos.“, – said Adam Riess, professor at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore (USA).

At the end of the last century, while observing type 1 supernovae, Riess and his colleagues discovered that the universe is not just growing, but is doing it faster and faster. The reason for the accelerated expansion of its boundaries, as physicists today believe, is the so-called dark energy, a mysterious substance or property of space, whose nature remains one of the main mysteries of modern science.

According to scientists’ past estimates, dark energy accounts for approximately 68% of the total mass of the universe, while visible and dark matter account for approximately 5% and 26% of the total mass of the universe. These values, as noted by Riess, were very approximate due to the small number of observations. This fact, as well as the recently discovered anomalies in the expansion rate of the Universe at different epochs of its life, prompted leading cosmologists and observer astronomers to launch the Pantheon+ project in 2019.

As part of this initiative, scientists continued to observe Type 1 supernova explosions, and also used other approaches to study the three-dimensional structure of the Universe, including observations of Cepheid variable stars. This allowed scientists to determine the exact distances between the Milky Way and distant galaxies and estimate the speed at which they move away from each other under the influence of dark matter.

In total, astronomers and cosmologists have tracked the outbreaks of more than 1.5 thousand supernovae of the first type, and also studied in detail four dozen distant galaxies in which such explosions of stars occurred and where Cepheid variable stars are present. Their periodic fluctuations in brightness have allowed cosmologists to accurately calculate the distance of these galaxies from the Milky Way.

As a result, scientists have doubled the accuracy of measurements of cosmological parameters, including the rate of expansion of the universe, as well as the proportion of dark energy, dark and visible matter. The first indicator, as noted by Riess, remains anomalously high for nearby objects – 73.4 kilometers per second per megaparsec (3.2 million light years). This became another argument in favor of the existence of anomalies in the process of expansion of the universe, discovered by the Nobel laureate and his colleagues in 2016.

In turn, the new calculations by Riess and his colleagues showed that the share of dark energy was previously somewhat overestimated – in fact, it is 66.2%, and not 68%, as was thought in the past. Similarly, the total share of visible and dark matter is about 33.8%, not 31%. In the near future, scientists plan to calculate how the shifts in cosmological parameters obtained by them will affect the nature of the distribution of galaxies and affect the overall appearance of the Universe as a whole.

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The GeForce RTX 3060 8GB is a “terrible anti-consumer move”. There was a full-fledged testing of a stripped-down video card

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The GeForce RTX 3060 8GB is a terrible anti consumer move

Some time ago, Nvidia introduced the GeForce RTX 3060 with 8GB of memory. And today we can evaluate its performance for the first time.

The GeForce RTX 3060 8GB is a

But first, let’s recall that the new version differs from the original not only in the amount of memory, but also in a narrower bus (128 bits versus 192 bits).

The GeForce RTX 3060 8GB is a

And if 8 GB of memory is almost always enough for modern games, then a narrower bus in the case of this adapter becomes quite critical. Tests show that in Full HD the new version is on average 17% slower than the original. At 1440p the difference grows to 18%. That is, it is quite a lot.

Yes, the gap from the RTX 3050 is still very large, and Nvidia does not have other current cards in this segment, so the release of a simplified RTX 3060 at the right price can be regarded positively.

The problem is that so far the RTX 3060 8GB is sold at a slightly lower price than the older sister, which makes buying the younger one impractical. However, if the price falls as a result, the stripped-down novelty will quite find its buyer. In the meantime, the authors of Hardware Unboxed called this video card “a terrible anti-consumer move by Nvidia.”

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Intel explained where it will take many billions of dollars to build a new plant in the US

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Intel explained where it will take many billions of dollars

Intel, as you know, plans to build new factories in the US, like a number of other semiconductor giants. However, such projects require huge costs.

Intel said the Arizona factory would cost $30 billion to build, but the company would not finance the entire project itself.

Intel explained where it will take many billions of dollars to build a new plant in the US

Back in August, Intel entered into an agreement with the Canadian company Brookfield Asset Management, with which together it will finance the construction of the plant. Those same 30 billion dollars in this case will be divided almost equally. Intel said that a similar approach will be applied in future projects. Such a decision, along with subsidies, will allow reaching the same level of costs as in the case of building a factory in Asia.

Intel said that the market already felt a high level of interest in such projects, so the company will have the opportunity to attract both old and new partners in the future. The company also notes that Europe is also going to pass laws that will allow companies to receive subsidies and build new factories in this region.

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Components

GeForce GTX 1060 finally retires. GTX 1650 tops Steam stats, though it depends how you count it

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GeForce GTX 1060 finally retires GTX 1650 tops Steam stats

The Steam stats have been updated, and there are tangible changes again.

GeForce GTX 1060 finally retires.  GTX 1650 tops Steam stats, though it depends how you count it

The GeForce GTX 1650 knocked the GTX 1060 off its pedestal in one big leap to become the most popular 3D gaming card… if you just look at the table.

Recall that with the release of the RTX 30 line in Steam statistics, mobile and desktop cards of this generation began to be displayed separately, while before that they were all displayed together under one name. Thus, the GTX 1650 takes 6.27%, and the RTX 3060, if you add the mobile and desktop versions, takes 8.04%, so the RTX 3060 is the most popular video card among Steam gamers, and will probably remain so for more for a very long time.

GeForce GTX 1060 finally retires.  GTX 1650 tops Steam stats, though it depends how you count it

Returning to the castling in the table, the GTX 1060 has been in first place for the last couple of years, if not more, but this card has not been on sale for a long time, and the GTX 1650 is still available. In just one month, the newer card gained 0.66 percentage points while the GTX 1060 lost 1.85 percentage points for some reason. By the way, the RTX 2060 also sank very strongly (by 1.46 p.p.), and the share of the desktop RTX 3060 fell by 2.06 p.p., which is very strange.

In terms of processors, AMD’s share jumped 3.88 percentage points over the month to 32.87%. The most popular on Steam are six-core CPUs with a share of 33.52%, the share of processors with four cores is 30.07%, and eight-core processors occupy 19.19%.

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