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Scientists grow plants in lunar soil for the first time Scientists grow plants in lunar soil for the first time

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Scientists grow plants in lunar soil for the first time

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The story of growing potatoes in Martian soil, shown in the sci-fi film The Martian starring Matt Daman, will someday become a reality, but for now, scientists have taken the first step towards that – they have grown plants in lunar soil for the first time. The one that the Apollo space missions brought to Earth over 50 years ago.

Scientists grow plants in lunar soil for the first time

As space agencies and private companies talk about sending people to the Moon and even Mars, the problem of providing crew with food, air and water is becoming increasingly important. The most obvious option is to grow or cultivate something right on the spot. And the current experiment has shown that the lunar soil is generally suitable for this.

For the study, samples of lunar soil (it is called regolith) were taken, delivered to Earth by the Apollo 11, 12 and 17 missions between 1969 and 1972. In all three samples, scientists in the laboratory grew watercress (aka Arabidopsis thaliana, it is horseradish or peppercorn – among the people). It can be eaten, but often it acts as an addition to the main dish. The control sample was grown in soil from terrestrial volcanic ash.

The researchers were able to grow watercress in all three regolith samples. But there is one important and interesting feature here: the more “mature” the lunar soil, the worse the plant grows. “Maturity” in this case is exposure to impacts from meteorites, cosmic rays, and streams of charged particles emanating from the Sun. Accordingly, the less susceptible the regolith is to such influences, the better it provides growth. Watercress grew worst of all in the soil brought back by the Apollo 11 mission – it was the most “mature”. Plants grew better in the Apollo 12 sample and even better in the Apollo 17 soil sample, which was the least “mature.” Well, in the volcanic ash, watercress felt almost perfect – it grew noticeably faster and more than in any of the regolith samples.

Scientists grow plants in lunar soil for the first time

Genetic analysis has shown that compared to plants grown in volcanic ash, plants grown in lunar soil express many genes associated with salt, metal-associated and oxidative stress. Watercress grown in the soil sample from Apollo 11 showed changes in 465 genes, while plants grown in the regolith from Apollo 12 and Apollo 17 expressed 265 genes and 113 genes, respectively. This was reflected in the appearance of the plant. Watercress, which had the most stress-induced genetic changes, looked the worst: it was smaller and reddish-black in color.

Scientists conclude that the lunar soil, most exposed to cosmic radiation and solar wind, is the worst for plants, but the “younger” parts of the moon may be more efficient for growing healthy plants. But in any case, even the healthiest plants on the Moon will grow slowly and be undersized. However, they can be eaten.

Scientists grow plants in lunar soil for the first time

However, while this is all just a theory. Scientists note that growing plants in lunar soil on Earth is one thing, but on the Moon it is quite another. A lot of further research will be required to finally understand whether it will be possible to grow plants on the Moon.

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In at least one way, the Galaxy S23 is definitely inferior to the iPhone 14 and Huawei Mate 50. The latest Samsung flagships do not support satellite communications

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In at least one way the Galaxy S23 is definitely

According to rumors, Samsung’s Galaxy S23 phones were supposed to be the first in the company’s range to support satellite communications. A few hours ago, the Galaxy S23, S23 Plus and S23 Ultra were officially presented – not a word was said about satellite communications support. Later, the situation was explained by the mobile division of Samsung, Tae Moon Ro (TM Roh).

In at least one way, the Galaxy S23 is definitely inferior to the iPhone 14 and Huawei Mate 50. The latest Samsung flagships do not support satellite communications

According to the top manager, satellite communication technology is not yet mature enough for its mass implementation. “When the time is right and the infrastructure and technology is ready, then of course for Samsung Galaxy, for our mobile division, we will also actively consider implementing this feature.“, – he said.

It is not clear what technology should be in order for it to be worthy of Samsung phones, but neither Apple nor Huawei were embarrassed by the limited data transmission capabilities in the satellite communication channel. Moreover, according to rumors, Huawei will soon introduce Mate X3 with support for second-generation satellite technology – much more functional.

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The latest Galaxy S23 flagships smash the Galaxy S22 in the first 3DMark test

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The latest Galaxy S23 flagships smash the Galaxy S22 in

Very quickly after the announcement of the Samsung Galaxy S23 phones, the first comparative test appeared, in which the flagships of the Korean company of two generations converged. It is noteworthy that they were tested not in Geekbench or AnTuTu, but in 3DMark, a graphics performance test.

The latest Galaxy S23 flagships smash the Galaxy S22 in the first 3DMark test

And in it, the new flagships Galaxy S23 did not leave a stone unturned from the Galaxy S22. Thus, the Galaxy S23 and Galaxy S23 Plus scored 3811 and 3799 points respectively, showing an average frame rate of 22.8 FPS, while the Galaxy S22 Plus scored 1689 points, and the average frame rate was half that of 10.10 FPS.

The latest Galaxy S23 flagships smash the Galaxy S22 in the first 3DMark test

The situation in the tests of Ultra models is approximately the same: Galaxy S23 Ultra scored 3874 points at a frame rate of 23.2 FPS, Galaxy S22 Ultra scores 1912 points at 11.4 FPS.

The latest Galaxy S23 flagships smash the Galaxy S22 in the first 3DMark test

Recall that the Galaxy S23 is built on the Qualcomm Snapdragon 8 Gen 2 SoC with the Adreno 740 GPU, and they were compared with their predecessors on the Exynos 2200 SoC with the Xclipse 920 GPU.

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Poco X5 5G live images days before official announcement

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Poco X5 5G live images days before official announcement

The Poco brand will officially unveil the Poco X5 5G and Poco X5 Pro 5G phones on February 6, but live images have already been published on the Web – screenshots from the unboxing video of the device.

Poco X5 5G live images days before official announcement

The pictures show the phone in green, this is the version with 256 GB of flash memory. It received the MIUI 13 interface based on Android 12. The phone has one speaker, the SIM card slot is combined, there is a standard headphone jack and an IR emitter on the top edge.

Poco X5 5G Live Images Days Before Official Announcement

Poco X5 5G Live Images Days Before Official Announcement
Poco X5 5G Live Images Days Before Official Announcement

The film wrapped around the phone confirms the use of a Snapdragon 695 SoC in the device, the presence of a Full-HD + AMOLED screen and a 48-megapixel camera.

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