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Physicists figured out how to speed up the boiling of water and save energy at the same time

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A team of physicists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has developed a technique that will speed up the boiling of water and reduce energy costs. As noted, the principle consists in a certain surface structure of the heating element.

Physicists figured out how to speed up the boiling of water and save energy at the same time

A conventional electric kettle uses a coil or heating disc. However, when the water is heated, bubbles filled with steam appear at the bottom of the kettle. As the temperature rises, their number increases, and if they are too close to each other, they form a gas layer, which reduces the transfer of heat from the heating element to the liquid.

Evelyn Wong and her team came up with a way to avoid this. The new design of the heating element is designed so that the bubbles become larger, but at the same time they do not merge, so that the formation of a gas layer does not occur.

The new heating element includes a set of 10 micrometer wide recesses. On the heating element there are several of these massively, they are placed at a distance of 2 mm from each other on small elevations. These elevations direct the heated water from the very bottom to the recesses, which creates a flow of liquid and increases the heating efficiency.

Physicists figured out how to speed up the boiling of water and save energy at the same time

This is what the surface of the new heating element looks like

Experiments have shown that the heat transfer coefficient of the new element is almost 4 times higher than that of the conventional one, and the critical heat flux (one of the important indicators of gas formation during heating) is almost 1.5 times higher.

It is noted that this will significantly save energy in a number of processes where boiling is used. That is, it will work in all steam turbines.

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In the fall, Roscosmos will launch a Soyuz 2.1b rocket on a new type of fuel – naphthyl

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In the fall Roscosmos will launch a Soyuz 21b rocket

The first rocket completely on a new type of fuel – naphthyl – will be launched from the Vostochny cosmodrome in the fall. The Gonets-M and Skif-D satellites will go into orbit on it. Ruslan Mukhamedzhanov, General Director of the Center for the Operation of Ground-Based Space Infrastructure (TsENKI, part of Roscosmos), spoke about this at the Army-2022 forum.

In the fall, Roscosmos will launch a Soyuz 2.1b rocket on a new type of fuel - naphthyl

The first launch on naphthyl from the Vostochny Cosmodrome is planned for this fall“, he said.

According to Mukhamedzhanov, it will be the launch of the Soyuz 2.1b carrier rocket with three Gonets-M communication satellites and the Skif-D demonstration satellite for broadband Internet access, which will be the first device under the Sphere federal project.

The Director General of TsENKI recalled that work on the transfer of the Soyuz launch complex to naphthyl at the Vostochny cosmodrome was carried out in several stages. First, the necessary technological equipment was installed, then last fall, specialists from the Vostochny Space Center and the Research Institute of Launch Complexes named after V.P. Barmin (TsENKI branches) connected it to the operating systems.

Autonomous tests, the CEO noted, were completed in December last year. In particular, naphthyl filling systems and an automatic process equipment control system were tested. “To complete the full transition cycle, it is necessary to conduct comprehensive tests that take place directly during the preparation of the launch vehicle for launch, when it is installed in the launch system”, Mukhamedzhanov added.

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SpaceX will pay to hack the Starlink network

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SpaceX will pay to hack the Starlink network

SpaceX has said anyone can hack into its Starlink satellite network and is willing to pay them up to $25,000 to find specific vulnerabilities. The announcement came after cybersecurity expert Lennert Wouters revealed that he successfully hacked a Starlink terminal using a $25 chip. Wouters said his attack could render Starlink terminals unusable and allow arbitrary code to run on them.

SpaceX will pay to hack the Starlink network

SpaceX, in turn, congratulated Wouters on his successful hacking attempt in a six-page document entitled “Starlink Welcomes Security Researchers (Find Bugs)”. “We find the attack technically impressive, and this is the first such attack that we are aware of on our system,” the document says. However, the hack carried out by Wouters using a homemade chip should not worry Starlink users, as it will not have a direct impact on the satellites, SpaceX added.

In-house engineers are always trying to hack Starlink to improve service and make the network more secure, according to a SpaceX document. Security researchers can conduct their own testing, and if they discover a vulnerability and report it, they can receive a monetary reward, the company notes. The award ranges from $100 to $25,000. But SpaceX has conditions: bug hunting must not disrupt user services, physical attacks on large-scale infrastructure are prohibited, as well as email spoofing (forgery of the sender’s address in emails).

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Brazil wants to tokenize gold and use blockchain

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Brazil wants to tokenize gold and use blockchain

Member of the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies Joenia Wapichana proposed to tokenize gold and use blockchain to prevent illegal mining and sale of this precious metal.

Brazil wants to tokenize gold and use blockchain

According to Vapichana, the country should be able to account for gold mining activities on its territory. The bill introduces new legislation aimed at transactions with precious metals and their transportation.

The bill will also help fight illegal mining activities in the country.

The legislator noted that about half of the gold in the country is mined illegally. She added that illegal mining activities have worsened the environmental impact of the mining industry.

These operations are accompanied by mercury pollution, violence and deforestation, which has been frequently reported in the national and international press, as well as civil society organizations that fight to protect the forest and guarantee the rights of indigenous peoples.

Therefore, Vapishana proposed to create a single system based on the blockchain, in which information about the mined gold will be entered, and through which its sale will be carried out. To do this, it is necessary to make the necessary amendments to the legislation of the country, the deputy added.

The idea of ​​tokenizing natural resources also came up this summer with the government of the Central African Republic (CAR). It believes that this will attract funds from foreign investors and accelerate the adoption of crypto assets in the country. In 2020, Circle CEO Jeremy Allaire suggested that within a few years, asset tokenization will gain popularity as it is an effective way to increase liquidity.

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