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Astrophysicists have discovered the oldest dark matter it is Astrophysicists have discovered the oldest dark matter it is


Astrophysicists have discovered the oldest dark matter – it is 12 billion years old



Astrophysicists have used CMB analysis to map the distribution of dark matter in the galaxy. Dark matter does not participate in electromagnetic interaction, which means that it does not emit any waves.

Astrophysicists have discovered the oldest dark matter - it is 12 billion years old

To fix it, scientists observed the galaxy, which is located behind the gravitational lens (a massive body that changes the direction of propagation of electromagnetic radiation with its gravitational field, just as an ordinary lens changes the direction of a light beam) and outside it: this can be used to determine how much light is distorted . The stronger the distortion, the greater the mass of the galaxy, and hence the mass of dark matter.

To collect the necessary data, scientists examined more than 1.5 million lens galaxies located at a distance of about 12 billion light years from Earth. The scientists also used observations of the cosmic microwave background (thermal radiation that evenly fills the universe) obtained by the Planck satellite.

By combining a sample of a large, distant galaxy and lens distortion in the CMB, they found dark matter 12 billion years old. That is, it is only 1.7 billion years younger than the Universe.

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Redmi K70 will reach the level of premium flagships. It will have a 2K screen, Snapdragon 8 Gen 3, a metal side frame and a glass back panel



Redmi K70 will reach the level of premium flagships It

Insider Digital Chat Station spoke not only about the future of One Plus Ace 3, but also about Redmi K70, the premiere of which is expected this year. Judging by the informant’s words, this model will turn into a premium flagship – both in terms of characteristics and finishing materials.

Redmi K70 will reach the level of premium flagships.  It will have a 2K screen, Snapdragon 8 Gen 3, a metal side frame and a glass back panel

The Redmi K70 will have much less plastic compared to its predecessor: the side frame will be metal, and the back panel will be glass. At least, this is how the prototype of the smartphone is designed.

Redmi K70 will have a screen with a frame of minimal thickness. This will be a locally produced (Chinese) display with a 2K resolution. The hardware platform will be based on the Snapdragon 8 Gen 3 SoC. The battery capacity will be 5000 mAh and will support 100 W charging. The main camera will have a 50-megapixel main sensor and will have optical image stabilization. A second sensor with a telephoto lens will provide at least 3x zoom.

According to the insider, Redmi K70, OnePlus Ace 3 and Relame GT Neo 6 will have a metal side frame. Apparently, these models will compete with each other.

Previously, Digital Chat Station was the first to accurately report the specifications and release dates of Redmi K50 and Xiaomi 12, as well as Xiaomi 13.

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Dust and radio waves have helped astronomers discover a connection between two key characteristics of galaxies



Dust and radio waves have helped astronomers discover a connection

At the center of almost every known galaxy, including our Milky Way, is a supermassive black hole—black holes with the mass of millions or billions of our Sun. In some galaxies, there is also a lot of material at the center that feeds this supermassive black hole, making it “active.”

The most powerful type of such active galaxies are called quasars – they are among the brightest objects in the Universe. Most quasars appear “blue” due to a disk of material around them that feeds a supermassive black hole that radiates brightly in the optical and ultraviolet ranges.

However, astronomers have discovered that a significant portion of these quasars appear “red.” Understanding the physics of these red quasars requires spectroscopic measurements to analyze the quasar’s light in different wavelength ranges. The spectrum of a quasar can indicate the amount of dust in the space surrounding the central region. Observing radio emissions from quasars can also reveal evidence of a central supermassive black hole.

Dust and radio waves have helped astronomers discover a connection between two key characteristics of galaxies

“Red” quasar as imagined by the artist. “Red” quasars are shrouded in gas and dust, which are carried away by the flow of a supermassive black hole, eventually exposing a typical “blue” quasar. Source: S. Munro & L. Klindt.

The study used spectroscopic observations from the DESI instrument, which was used to measure the amount of dust in a sample of about 35,000 quasars and relate the data to observed radio emission. The scientists found that DESI was able to observe much redder (dusty) quasars compared to similar previous spectroscopic studies, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). And also “red” quasars much more often have stronger radio emission compared to typical “blue” quasars.

Dr Fossett said: “This study puts many pieces of the red quasar puzzle together and links the dust in the quasar to its radio emissions. I think this is the strongest evidence yet that ‘red’ quasars are a key element in the evolution of galaxies.”

The connection between quasar reddening and radio emission is likely due to powerful outbursts of gas from the supermassive black hole colliding with surrounding dust, generating waves and radio emission. These ejections eventually carry away all the dust and gas from the central region of the galaxy, revealing the blue quasar and leading to a weakening of the radio emission.

This process fits with the increasingly popular idea that “red” quasars are a younger phase in the evolution of galaxies. Therefore, they quasars could be extremely important for understanding how galaxies evolve over time.

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Beijing’s space evolution: commercial space and satellite “constellations” as key industries of the future



Beijings space evolution commercial space and satellite constellations as key

On September 8, the central office of the Beijing Municipal Government released a notice on the “Implementation Plan for Promoting the Innovative Development of Future Industries.” This is the implementation of national plans and priorities published over the past two years.

The Plan lists specific areas within broad thematic sections. These include information technology (including 6G, artificial intelligence and quantum computing), manufacturing, healthcare, energy and space.

The Commercial Space Plan calls for accelerating the development and production of medium- and large-scale commercial rockets, 3D-printed rockets, reusable clean-burning rocket engines, and re-entry commercial spacecraft. The main efforts will be united in such areas as vertical launch and return of rockets, manned suborbital flights and clearing the Earth’s orbit of space debris. It is also planned to promote projects to create rocket engines and related key components, and build test sites.

Beijing's space evolution: commercial space and satellite “constellations” as key industries of the future

View of the interior of the payload fairing of Galactic Energy’s Ceres-1 rocket. Source: Galactic Energy

The satellite section states its intent to actively support communications satellites, software-driven satellites, and mass production satellite platforms. Other priority areas focus on laser communications, high-precision radar and optical sensing of the Earth. Priorities include the development of satellite constellations for high-resolution data, fast updates, full coverage of optical and radar remote sensing systems, as well as low-orbit Internet of Things satellites and navigation satellite constellations.

The measures taken are already in line with China’s previously announced national plan to build a space-to-ground information network (or SGIIN). The country plans to create a system that integrates communications, remote sensing, navigation, meteorology and other satellite capabilities.

Beijing is home to a cluster of large state-owned and emerging commercial companies. Rocket companies are concentrated in the southern part of the city, while satellite-related businesses are concentrated in the northern part. In 2021, Beijing presented stages for the development of the satellite Internet industry.

Landspace, iSpace, Galactic Energy, Deep Blue Aerospace and Space Pioneer are a few of the leading commercial launch startups with headquarters or other key facilities in Beijing. GalaxySpace, Minospace, Smart Satellite and HEAD Aerospace are some of the commercial companies involved in satellite communications, small satellite manufacturing, synthetic aperture radar and other remote sensing satellites. Many of these companies are already engaged in activities described in Beijing’s Plan, including developing reusable rockets, expanding Earth remote sensing capabilities and mass production of satellites.

As a result, highlighting current achievements in the field of space exploration, the Chinese space agency has expressed its readiness to offer commercial cargo delivery.

Beijing’s policies are in line with guidance from the national plan: China’s central government announced plans to identify and develop future industries in March 2021, with a draft overall plan for the next five years (2021-2025) and long-term goals until 2035.

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